Thursday, 20 October 2011

Freud - Raw Notes



Freud to Derrida

* Kant and Hegel were a massive influence in British Universities
* Very few philosophers described themselves as 'Freudian'.

Freud


* Born 1856
* Died 1939 - Lethal injection that he requested
* "Born into an Austrian family of non-observant Jews"
* Trained as a doctor, initially to study brain anatomy
* 1886 - Private medical practice
* 1895 - Published a work with Breur on hysteria - "presented an original analysis of mental illness"
* Freud stopped using hypnosis as a form of treatment and instead decided to turn to what he called psychoanalysis
* Psychoanalysis - "Nothing more than an exchange of words between patient and doctor"
* Patients were encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind
* Decided psychological trauma stemmed from Infancy. Had sexual content.
* 1900 - Published "The Interpretation of Dreams"
* 1923 - Published "The Ego and the Id"
* Atheist
* 1927 - "The Origin of Illusion" - Controversial account of the origin of religion

The Unconscious


Manifested through:

1) Everyday trivial mistakes
2) Reports of dreams
3) Symptoms of neurosis

Sexual Development


1) Oral (birth-1 year) - Pleasure focused on the mouth
2) Anal (1-3 years) - Pleasure focused on controlling bladder / bowel movements
3) Phallic (3-6 years) - Child focuses on own penis or clitoris

The Oedipus Complex 

The theory states:

* Boy focuses sexual desire on mother
* Resent father's possession of mother
* Child's anger towards father leads child to fear castration from father's retaliation
* Because of this, boy abandons sexual feelings towards his mother and learns to identify with the father
* Freud had no doubt there was a female equivalent, but this was never fully explored

Ego / Mental Disorder


"So long as the ego is in harmony with the Id, all will be well". If harmony is not there, mental disorders will develop.

Freud's Attacks


Against Plato:

Followed Plato's idea of the tripartite self - Reason, spirit, desire.
* Plato = Believed reason could rule the other
* Freud = Reason was the weakest because people are irrational

Against Marx:

* Marx = Believed of the infinite potential of human nature and its ability to develop
* Freud = Rejects this. It's too idealistic

Freudian Personality


1) Id - The animal part of our personality. Sex and aggression are dominating forces
2) Ego - (or our self) The weakest part of the personality. The voice of reason. The ego constantly battles the Id
3) Superego - Internalised rules from our parents and society. Unrealistic standards imposed.

Copying Mechanisms


1) Intoxication
2) Isolation
3) Sublimation (finding socially acceptable releases for anger)

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