Friday, 4 November 2011

Frege, Marx, Nietzche,Freud - Raw Notes


[Marx, Nietzsche, Freud - Chronological order]

3 critics who killed enlightenment

Frege - "Sense and Sensibility"

* Individual proposition do not have meaning, they only have meaning in relation to other propositions.
* Without logic all certain knowledge from reason, as opposed to pure sense data, is bought in to question
* Sentential logic - Understand and explain the significance of:

1) The evening star is the same as the morning star
2) The present King of France is not bald
3) There was nobody on the road

* Frege is the final rejection of Syllogistic logic (Aristotle) as a path to truth

Neitzche:

Subjectivist epistemology - No universal truth, only subjective impressions of relative value

This is a rejection of:

* Judeo-Christian-Islamic outlook
* Rationalist secularist scientific approach of the enlightenment
* Kantian categorical epistemology and morality

Marx claimed to have discovered universal law of human social development. Used the language of the enlightenment.

(Marx was the least skeptical of the '3 critics'. Also the least subjective)

Nietzche and Freud come after Marx. 'God is dead'.

Nietzche has a number of famous quotes used widely in popular media. It's worth looking at some.

* Marx - Alienation / ideology - "The ruling ideas in every epoch and the ideas of the ruling class" - This is still an important idea in social science, in practical politics, in Journalism and in literacy criticism.

* At its extreme Marxian concepts of ideology lead to doctrines of separate or independent social consciousness.

* The Marxist and Nietzschean critique of Freud is that he lacks an anthropological basis for his theories or a political framework.

( Anthropology = The study of human behaviour, cultures and their development )

* Frederick Engles - The origins of the family, state and private property and the subject are of anthropology, asserts that truth and systems of morality are indeed subjective and transitory.

E.g - In one society cannibalism is taboo. In others, it's celebrated as a religious activity.

* Freud is with Nietzsche, Schopenhaur and hindu-buddhism in seeing the ego.
* Freud's psychotherapy is little more than people coming to terms with their role in life.

Nietzsche thinks will is good. He has has a big influence on popular culture.

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