Tuesday, 27 March 2012

Wittgenstein - Seminar Notes



1) The world is everything that is the case

Section 1 to 2 deal with what the world is fundamentally made up of
* The world is determined by facts
* It's the totality of facts, not things
* The world divides into facts

2) What is the case, the fact, is the existence of atomic facts

* An atomic fact is a combination of objects
* Nothing in logic is accidental
* "If I know an object, then I also know all the possibilities of its occurrence in atomic facts"
* Objects can't be compound because they form the substance of the earth
* Form - Possibility of structure
* We make pictures of facts and these pictures represent the facts in logical space
* In order to be a picture, a fact must have something in common with what it pictures

Picture: A) Represents a possible state of affairs in logical space
            B) Agrees with reality or not, it's right or wrong, true or false
            C) What it represents is its sense

3) The logical picture of the facts is the thought

* Form and propositions
* Proposition - The thought is expressed perceptibly through the senses
* The proposition is the sign
* "Objects I can only name. Signs represent them"

4) The thought is the significant proposition

* All philosophy is 'critique of language'
* Most questions written about philosophy are senseless

5) Propositions are truth functions of elementary propositions

States of affairs: Simple objects combined, combination of objects
Complex facts: States of affairs combined
Objects: Exist only in the context of states of affairs

Language - Consists of propositions
                  Names mirror objects

Proposition - A logical picture of reality
                     The elements of a proposition are arranged in such a way they resemble the reality they rep.

Signs - Given meaning through their use in propositions

"There are no genuine philosophical problems"
"Philosophy is just a by-product of misunderstanding language" - People misunderstand language when they try to give something a form when it can't have one. Pain and the soul, for example

Verification Principle: A statement is only legitimate if there is some way to determine whether the statement is true or false

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