WINOL: Features Archive

At the age of just 15, Paul Blackburn was wrongfully imprisoned for 25 years. Presented, edited and produced by Tom Morgan.

Media Law - Year Three Notes Archive

A collection of posts looking at media law, including tips for journalists, case examples and information on the various codes of conduct. Click here for more.

American Election 2012 - US Embassy Report

Myself, Lee Jarvis, Sam Sheard and Kirsty McDonagh spent the evening at the US Embassy as part of WINOL's coverage of the 2012 American election.

Work Experience: The One Show

This blog post serves as a summary of what I got up to during my time at the BBC and also provides some information on how the One Show is run.

Work Experience: PC Advisor

After breaking up from University for the summer, I arranged two separate work experience placements to keep me occupied over the break. The first of these placements was at PC Advisor in London.

Work Experience: Basingstoke Gazette

After breaking up from University for the summer, I arranged two separate work experience placements to keep me occupied over the break. The second of these placements was at the Basingstoke Gazette.

HCJ Notes Archive: Year One and Year Two

A collection of lecture notes, seminar papers and seminar summaries from Year One and Year Two on the HCJ course at the University of Winchester

Thursday, 19 April 2012

Existentialism - Seminar Summary

Our seminar looking at Existentialism was an interesting one for me. We began with a discussion on defining what existentialism really is. Admittedly, it's difficult to define effectively. An existentialist holds beliefs and views tying with free will and society's effect on us. The society that we find ourselves a part of will mold and shape our expectations of the world, our relationships and our actions. The approach is based upon the idea that we, as people, determine our own fate. We are free and responsible to take the actions we deem appropriate in any given situation. We are, therefore, the people we choose to be.

Famous existentialists that we've covered in the past include Satre and Heidegger. Satre's early work focused on the study of phenomenology. Existentialism is closely related to Phenomenology and psychology, dealing with the subjective perceptions of things we interact with. 

Phenomenology is defined as: 'An approach that concentrates on the study of consciousness and the objects of direct experience'. The picture seen below is known as Husserl's Duck/Rabbit conundrum. Based upon how you look at the picture, your perception will change. Study the picture one way and you'll see a rabbit. Look again and you'll see a duck. How is this related to existentialism? The image shows that perception and intention are linked. When you study the picture, you choose what to see. It is our choices that define our existence as humans. Consciousness is intentional and meaning is fixed subjectively, however some ideas and bits of knowledge have priority over others.
Above: What you see will change depending on what you choose to see

Heidegger, the second existentialist I mentioned, wrote 'Being and Time'. The book was released in 1927 and  had a big impact on 20th century philosophy. Heidegger was interested in how the personality developed over time. Before his work surfaced, it was widely assumed that the personality did not change. We were born with particular behavioural characteristics and that was that. This was wrong, however, according to Heidegger. His beliefs said that the personality was ever-changing. We could therefore, in his mind, be born one way (with certain behavioural characteristics) and die another. Time, for Heidegger, was a structure of being. For him, it wasn't what we do that was of interest. Instead, it was how we come to understand what it is that we do.

Heidegger also came up with the concept of being, or the 'Dasein '. The Dasein was very important to existentialists, who felt that it would enable us to further our understanding of what it meant to exist. Heidegger said: "Dasein exists. Furthermore, Dasein is an entity which in each case I myself am. Mineness belongs to any existent Dasein, and belongs to it as the condition which makes authenticity and inauthenticity possible".

Heidegger claims we view the past with guilt, the present with dread and the future as unknown. Sticking with the subject of guilt and dread, Satre was known to have famously stated: "Hell is other people". The phrase originated from Satre's play titled 'No Exit', which told the story of three main characters who discover their fate consists of spending eternity locked in the same room as each other.

The phrase explains that there is no metaphysical heaven or hell. Instead, it is our interactions with others that are the source of our despair. For Satre, 'hell' was having to mold oneself into what society wanted. It was the feeling that we must constantly ensure we are keeping those around us happy. As Satre was an existentialist, this seemed foolish. We should, in his mind, be the people we choose to be, instead of adapting to suit the wants of others. This links with the narrative running through Camus' 'Outsider'.

Our reading in preparation for the seminar was 'The Outsider' by Albert Camus. I thought the book made for an interesting read, particularly during the main character's time on trial. The book is particularly relevant to the existential movement due to the personality of the novel's main character, 'Meursault'. 

Meursault is a particularly detached individual who seems to lack emotion according to the people he interacts with. Following the death of his mother, Meursault seems to show no sadness towards what has happened, instead carrying on his love affair with 'Marie'. He doesn't break down at the thought of not having a mother anymore, instead going on with his life almost as if nothing has changed at all. Meursault  is blunt and brutally honest with even the people closest to him. Even when his lover, Marie, asks him if he would marry her, Meursault 'told her it didn't mean anything but that I didn't think so'.

As is pointed out by the author during the afterword, Meursault is considered an outsider by society purely because he is not willing to lie. He finds himself on trial after shooting an Arab man multiple times and in the jury's eyes he is a guilty man, as he shows no signs of upset when explaining what happened. Meursault has multiple characters speak about his case in court, explaining that he did not appear upset at his mother's funeral. When asked if this is true, Meursault is not willing to pretend he was upset just to appear an innocent man.
Above: Albert Camus, author of The Outsider

How is the novel linked to existentialism? Meursault is taking an existential stance. He is unwilling to alter his actions for the good of others, instead being the man he wants to be and refusing to feel guilty for this action. Even during the trial, Meursault is described as an individual without a soul because ultimately, he isn't willing to blindly adapt to the world around him.

Whilst MeursaultMeursault's actions throughout the novel. Nothing means anything, so everything means nothing. Nihilism claims there is no reasonable proof of a higher being, which Meursault proves he agrees with during his outburst towards the end of the novel.  Meursault says: "I replied [to the chaplain] that I didn't believe in God. He wanted to know whether I was quite sure about that and I said I had no reason for asking myself that question: it didn't seem to matter".

As Camus himself says: "Meursault doesn't play the game. The answer is simple: he refuses to lie. Lying is not only saying what isn't true. It is also, in fact especially, saying more than is true and, in the case of the human heart, saying more than one feels." The author goes on to add: "He [Meursault] says what he is, he refuses to hide his feelings and society immediately feels threatened."

Thursday, 12 April 2012

New HCJ Archive Page

I have just added a new page to the blog that contains my HCJ notes and seminar summaries from the HCJ course.

This page can be accessed here:

WINOL REVIEW - 04/04/12

Week 10 at WINOL was a great week that I was proud to be a part of. I thought we ended our recent run of broadcasts on a high. The news team had more stories fall through this week than ever before and I think we did well to come back from this to finish as well as we did. We had 6 stories in red: Archery (George), Gnomes (Aarran), Drought (Flick), Lung Technology (Dan), Intech Exhibition (Eddie) and Skatepark (George).

I was watching the broadcast go out and I thought the gallery handled the slight mistake with Sport very well. Lou also did a good job to address the issue and apologise for it. There was a great anticipation of problems from the whole team this week. We've got to the stage where we can predict what it most likely to go wrong and have a plan to address it.

The headlines were also the best we've had. Every piece had a fantastic, memorable wrote. The timing, delivery and scripting was brilliant too.

In terms of individual feedback:

George (Ed Miliband)

I think the reason this bulletin was our finest yet was because of the effort you put in to arrange an interview with Ed Miliband on the day of the broadcast. You came in on Wednesday morning knowing your skatepark story had fallen through and instead of letting this defeat you, you decided to try something new. Your persistence with the Southampton press office paid off and before 11am you were already on your way to the venue with Flick.

The footage you came back with was very impressive. There were some great shots of Ed as he was talking during the Q&A. The sound quality in the one-on-one interview was flawless, which only made your package on the story look even more professional. I watched your rushes and thought you did well to pressure the press lady for more time. You managed to get in some good questions to Miliband and you came back to the news room with some great quotes.

It was pointed out in the Wednesday debrief that the sound on the interview was slightly tinny, but this was only a minor issue. I don't personally think it took away from the rest of your package. The in-studio segment with Aarran was also very slick and I thought it worked well. The rehearsal time clearly paid off, too. This was easily your best week and I'm sure you'd agree with me too.

Graham (Local Elections)

This was the second petrol story you'd done so there was quite abit of pressure on you to make it better than the last package you'd got into the bulletin. I think you did a good job, overall. It was certainly an improvement from your first petrol story. You clearly got abit more creative with your shots this time. I particularly liked the walking piece to camera. As was pointed out on Wednesday, "It felt like you said something that needed to be said rather than using the PTC as a way of filling time".

Obviously the ideal shot would have been a person in a car, but again we didn't see this. The link from the Miliband story was good. I think that it looked good to use your story as a continuation of a previous one. You did well to get a great quote from your interviewee and I liked the shots leading into the interview.

I think you did well this week. You got a good, well-paced package to me long before the bulletin went out.

Dan (SU President)

Another strong story from you this week. Your shots following the current president and the upcoming president into the SU office were a nice touch. You matched what you were saying in the script with what we were seeing on screen very effectively. You're not too literal either, which is great. The sound quality on your package was also very good, as was your voice.

You've managed to remain very consistent with your packaging this term and the final week was no exception.

Lou (Sea City)

You obviously wanted to do a political piece this week and it's a shame that your interviews didn't go as planned. I appreciated the fact you went down to Southampton to film the museum, however. Obviously, it was an and-finally piece so ideally we needed to see you interacting with some of the exhibits at the centre. This was your first time attempting to film an and-finally and I don't think you did too bad.

I had to edit out some of your shots before we could export the package. The segment about the rower was strange and it didn't fit with the rest of the story. There were some other shaky shots too that you shouldn't have been using.

It was pointed out during the Wednesday debrief that you needed a shot of the Titanic in the piece! It was a story about the Titanic and yet we didn't see the Titanic. This didn't make much sense. I thought you did a good job considering you were filming something you weren't used to filming, however. 

Tuesday, 10 April 2012

Wittgenstein - Seminar Summary

Ludwig Wittgenstein was a German born philosopher with a deep interest in the foundation of mathematics and philosophical studies. He entered the Austrian army during World War I and the notes he kept during his time in service formed the basis of his Tractatus, a book he wrote that explored the subject of rational thinking. Within the 'Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus', Wittgenstein explored some of the issues associated with philosophy and also the reasons behind how and why problems related to language arose.

Ludwig was part of the Vienna Circle, which was formed in the 1920's and investigated scientific language and methodology. The movement associated with the Vienna Circle was known as logical positivism. The group denied that any principle was synthetic a priori. A priori judgement is based entirely upon reason and is independent from sensory experience. It was also synthetic a priori that was relevant to the work of Kant, who I have discussed HERE

Vienna Circle was essentially anti-metaphysical. The groups stance towards the metaphysical world was due somewhat to their deep interest in the uses and applications of mathematics. The Circle's theories were constantly changing as they uncovered more about the sciences they investigated. Originally, the group met under the leadership of Moritz Schlick, a German philosopher much like Wittgenstein. Schlick was born in 1882 and doubted the use of metaphysical thought. He was based instead on forming a theory of knowledge based on empirical evidence and symbolic logic.

The groups manifesto stated that the Vienna Circle was characterised by two features: The fact that is was empiricist (assuming there was knowledge only from experience) and that is was distinctly positivist. It also said that the group were interested in the use of logical analysis. This was a method of clarifying and solving philosophical problems, making use of symbolic logic.

Wittgenstein (above) was born into one of Europe's wealthiest families

Wittgenstein made it clear that language was extremely important. He felt that one could not begin to construct an idea, concept or view without the use of language. 

Before looking at the points outlined in Wittgenstein's Tractatus, it's worth taking a look at some of the terminology used in the text. When Wittgenstein refers to language, he is discussing language that consists of propositions, which offer a logical picture of reality. The elements of a proposition are arranged in such a way they resemble the reality they represent. Wittgenstein also refers to 'signs', which he states are given meaning through their use in propositions

The book itself consisted of several 'main propositions' and hundreds of pages of accompanying footnotes. Below are the main propositions put forward in the text:

1) The world is everything that is the case.

Section 1 and 2 of the Tractatus deal with what the world is fundamentally made up of. Wittgenstein states that the world is determined by facts and that the word divides into these facts. "The world is the totality of facts, not of things", he writes.

This opening proposition within the Tractatus explains that the things that make up reality are to be considered 'simple object's. It's these objects that come together to form what is referred to as 'states of affairs'. Facts are existent states of affairs.

2) What is the case, the fact, is the existence of atomic facts.

In the second chapter of the book, Wittgenstein argues that nothing in logic is accidental. He explains: "If I know an object, then I also know all the possibilities of its occurrence in atomic facts". 

Wittgenstein says that an atomic fact is a combination of objects, yet these objects can't be compound because they form the substance of the earth. When Wittgenstein refers to form, he is simply describing the possibility of structure. He explains that we make pictures of facts and these pictures represent the facts in logical space. What this picture represents is its sense. In order to be a picture, a fact must have something in common with what it pictures.

3) The logical picture of the facts is the thought.

The third proposition explains that a thought is sourced from an individuals idea of a possible situation, bought together using logical justification. The Tractatus then explains the concept of 'forms' and 'propositions'. It states that a proposition is where an individuals thought is expressed perceptibly through the senses.

The proposition is also the sign. We use signs to help us communicate a proposition. Wittgenstein states: "Objects I can only name. Signs represent them". It is signs that we use to put across our views. We could, for example, do this using speech, writing or body language. 

One of the most important ideas that arises from the Tractatus is that propositions are logical pictures of fact. We conceive and understand something only when we successfully picture it ourselves. We do this if something relevant can be the case and we can conceive it. If we can do this, we form a logical picture.

4) The thought is the significant proposition.

All philosophy is a 'critique of language', Wittgenstein writes. The German philosopher explains how most questions written about philosophy are senseless. Philosophical questions and ideas concerning the metaphysical world cannot necessarily be proven or shown to be false. Propositions of logic don't picture anything, either. As a result, they do not have sense. In Wittgenstein's terms, they are senseless.

5) Propositions are truth functions of elementary propositions.

In the fifth chapter of the book, Wittgenstein discusses further the concept of complex facts and objects. He explains that what he commonly refers to as a  'states of affairs' is merely simple objects combined to form a combination of objects. He goes on to add that complex facts are states of affairs combined and that objects exist only in the context of states of affairs.

Wittgenstein famously stated: "Philosophy is just a by-product of misunderstanding language". Personally, I think this a fairly straightforward argument. It ultimately explains that people misunderstand language when they try to give something a form when it can't have one. Pain and the soul, for example, cannot take a physical form. The verification principle is also relevant here, stating that a statement is only legitimate if there is some way to determine whether the statement is true or false.

During the seminar we discussed the concept of language games. As people, we learn different languages through our interactions with the culture we are surrounded by. We adjust our language and actions accordingly to the situations we find ourselves in and the places we inhabit. In the seminar we identified a number of different language games. As journalists, for example, we have our own language game. Our time producing WINOL has seen us learn a number of new key phrases and terms in regards to our work. OOVS, Nat sot and NIBs, for example.

Tuesday, 3 April 2012

WINOL REVIEW - 28/03/12

Week 9 at WINOL was positive. Reporters are clearly feeling more comfortable with piecing together their packages and giving each story a particular angle. We had an issue on the production side and had to temporarily pull the bulletin from YouTube as swearing could be heard in one of the sports packages, but the bulletin is now up and running again.

In terms of individual feedback:


Your piece this week relied heavily on archive footage, but you did very well to get three interviews all of which had some strong quotes. You started the package with a very effective 'washing line' intro, which gave the piece some nice pacing. Your first interview was slightly ruined by the drill noise ,but the framing of the shot was probably the best you've managed to get into the bulletin. The lighting on the interview was also ideal so well done for that.

It was mentioned in the debrief on Monday that your script was slightly jumbled at points. Admittedly, though, you were attempting to explain quite a complex story so I think you did well considering. You said 'accountable' too much in the script and started to repeat yourself towards the end of the package. There was also too much expo leading up to the first interview grab. The framing on your third interview was also quite odd. It looked like the camera was pointing downwards at Woodward.

You had another good week, but your shots let you down slightly. It's a shame you had to rely so much on archive footage, but your interviews helped to bulk out the story. Your piece to camera was also delivered well and you've clearly make a concious effort to slow down your voice. Make sure, however, that you take into account balance over time over the coming weeks.


Your package this week was nicely put together. It was great to have a campus story on the elections as it's something that was affecting a large number of our viewers. You managed to get some nice sequence shots into the piece and I thought the fact you followed the candidates around was very effective. There was also a nice quote from Quested and your interviews were all well framed. The shots of the Q&A event were nice because we got to see the candidates interact.

In the Monday debrief it was highlighted that we didn't hear alot of information with regards to the voting turnout. We were left asking: Who is voting for these applicants? Your story was also sightly too descriptive which meant you didn't really tell a story.

I did like your piece this week, though. Again, your voice was very well paced and the way in which you voice your packages gives them a nice polish.

Sarah and Rachelle

I thought the in-studio discussion on the enquiry was very well done. The feature is brilliant and deserved a little plug and I think you both did a great job of scripting what you were going to say about the issue and how you were going to discuss this between each other. You were both confident on camera and it felt to me as a viewer that you were comfortable with discussing the subject.

There was talk before we went live of using props in the piece. I'm aware that you bought items in, Rachelle, and was left wondering why you didn't use them? You also didn't explain your reasons behind making the feature very clearly. The audience weren't able to understand why some of the objects you mentioned were incriminating.

Overall, it was a strong studio discussion, though. I was glad to put it in the bulletin as it was a genuinely interesting segment.


You had a hard time this week after finding out the Lego structure wasn't as big as first thought. Nevertheless, you managed to make something of the structure with a nice interview and some strong GV's. The pictures you managed to get were impressive and I liked the montage of the architect's previous work. It was a nice light way to end the bulletin.

We weren't, however, told why he was building the model. I know it's an attraction at a museum, but we weren't made aware of this. The piece last time was clever, but it was slightly embarrassing that we got the fact wrong. It's a shame this happened, but you did well to not let this throw you off the story completely. You had some technical issues initially with your interview as it was poorly framed. I know you pinched the shot in and although it was slightly blurry, I don't think the edit was particularly noticeable.


Unfortunately, your OOV on the Game closure didn't make it into the bulletin, but it was usable. The segment was well scripted and you had some nice shots from in town. I appreciate the fact you rushed out to get the footage on the day of the broadcast as that's exactly the sort of attitude I need from the reporters on a Wednesday.


You had a tough time with your story this week and it's a shame it didn't come through for the bulletin. Your story on student housing sounded strong when you pitched it to me in the news meeting, but it wasn't until Tuesday that you realised some of the details were too unclear to justify using the package. You did well to keep looking for stories even though your first idea had fallen through and I appreciated the fact you and Graham scripted the cathedral charge and sea city museum OOVs.

GV's as a background during the credit sequence at the end of the bulletin.


When we were discussing the motorcross story on Monday, it sounded brilliant. The story basically made itself in terms of shots. You were persistent in trying to arrange an interview and it's a shame the person you had in mind was unwilling to talk. We couldn't use your story after your contact for the story told you the course wouldn't be in use for another 5 or 6 weeks.

After this, you helped to put together the pictures for the OOVs I was potentially going to run on the day of the broadcast, which was appreciated. I was aware you were away in the morning due to helping elsewhere with the memorial service but is was useful to have the OOVs done and ticked on the news board.


I thought you did a very good job on Wednesday going out to an interview for the sunshine story. It was something you and George had been planning extensively and you knew you had alot to do with not much time. Even though you couldn't get a lift to where you needed to go you still persued the story, which I thought was a great attitude to have.

The footage you bought back to the newsroom would have been good enough to put into the bulletin if you'd had time to piece it together. I hope you do something with the footage you collected so you can put it in a show reel or something similar.

Monday, 2 April 2012

WINOL Monday Debrief Notes - 02/04/12

Everybody was very good with organising their time this week

A very professional looking bulletin. Everyone has clearly improved their packaging skills - "You can all feel like you have done something towards this bulletin to make it really solid".


* Grabs from the dementia headline, it looked odd because it implied the women in vision was a dementia sufferer. As a whole, the headlines were fairly good this week.
* The articles on the site should be around 250 - 300 words


* The way you read the ending link was very professional. Much better pacing, confident as a presenter now


* A good 'washing line' intro
* The interview was ruined by the drill noise
* Slightly jumbled script. Said 'accountable' too much
* Very well framed interview, nice background view
* Too much expo following the first interview
Used alot of archive footage
* Shame you had to rely on this footage so heavily
* Did well to get three interviews. Your political contacts came in handy this week
* The back ano. was good
* You managed to pace your piece to camera well, although it's slightly too long
* Make sure you balance the story over time


Some good sequence shots
* Liked the fact you followed some of the candidates around
* Nice quote - 'Small guy, big challenge'
* We didn't hear too much about the turnout. Who is going to vote for these people?
* Too descriptive - "You've not told us a story"

Sarah and Rachelle:

"Thought it worked really nicely"
* There was talk beforehand of using props - Shame they weren't used
* Didn't understand why some of the objects you mentioned were incriminating
* That didn't come across very well


Some nice shots
* Good pacing to the script
* Fantastic quote too - "It's a nightmare"
* It was an emotive story
* You knew you wanted to make the piece more focused on the case study
* You changed the construction of the story with a short amount of time to go and remained calm


Impressed by the pictures
* We weren't really told why he was building it (It's an attraction at a museum, but we weren't made aware of this)
* The piece last time was clever, but it was embarrassing that we got the fact wrong

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